Scientific publications

Our genetic test is based on scientific research. Below are links to published scientific articles relevant for SynchroGait® and Skeletal Atavism testTM. For more information about DNA, genes and inheritance please click here.


The evolutionary history of the DMRT3 'Gait keeper' haplotype

Staiger EA, Almén MS, Promerová M, Brooks S, Cothran EG, Imsland F, Jäderkvist Fegraeus K, Lindgren G, Mehrabani Yeganeh H, Mikko S, Vega-Pla JL, Tozaki T, Rubin CJ, Andersson L. Animal Genetics 2017.


Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 "Gait Keeper" mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters

Jäderkvist Fegraeus K, Lawrence C, Petäjistö K, Johansson MK, Wiklund M, Olsson C, Andersson L, Andersson LS, Røed KH, Ihler CF, Strand E, Lindgren G, Velie BD. PLoS One. 2017.


Genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the genes associated with body composition and locomotion traits in Myanmar native horses

Okuda Y, Moe HH, Moe KK, Shimizu Y, Nishioka K, Shimogiri T, Mannen H, Kanemaki M, Kunieda T. Anim Sci J. 2017.


Large Deletions at the SHOX Locus in the Pseudoautosomal Region are associated with Skeletal Atavism in Shetland ponies

Nima Rafati, Lisa S Andersson, Sofia Mikko, Chungang Feng, Terje Raudsepp, Jessica Pettersson, Jan Janecka, Ove Wattle, Adam Ameur, Gunilla Thyreen, John Eberth, John Huddleston, Maika Malig, Ernest Bailey, Evan E. Eichler, Göran Dalin, Bhanu Chowdary, Leif Andersson, Gabriella Lindgren and Carl-Johan Rubin. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics Mission. 2016


DMRT5 Together with DMRT3 Directly Controls Hippocampus Development and Neocortical Area Map Formation

De Clercq S, Keruzore M, Desmaris E, Pollart C, Assimacopoulos S, Preillon J, Ascenzo S, Matson CK, Lee M, Nan X, Li M, Nakagawa Y, Hochepied T, Zarkower D, Grove EA, Bellefroid EJ. Cereb Cortex. 2016.


The origin of ambling horses

Wutke S, Andersson L, Benecke N, Sandoval-Castellanos E, Gonzalez J, Hallsson JH, Lõugas L, Magnell O, Morales-Muniz A, Orlando L, Pálsdóttir AH, Reissmann M, Muñoz-Rodríguez MB, Ruttkay M, Trinks A, Hofreiter M, Ludwig A. Curr Biol. 2016 


Loci impacting polymorphic gait in the Tennessee Walking Horse

Staiger EA, Abri MA, Silva CA, Brooks SA. J Anim Sci. 2016.


Comparison of DMRT3 genotypes among American Saddlebred horses with reference to gait

Regatieri IC, Eberth JE, Sarver F, Lear TL, Bailey E. Animal Genetics 2016.


Quantitative analysis of short- and long-distance racing performance in young and adult horses and association analysis with functional candidate genes in Spanish Trotter horses

Negro Rama, S., Valera, M., Membrillo, A., Gómez, M.D., Solé, M., Menendez-Buxadera, A., Anaya, G. and Molina, A. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. 2016


MSTN, CKM and DMRT3 gene variants in different lines of Quarter Horses

Guilherme L. Pereira, Rafael de Matteis, Luciana C.A. Regitano, Luís Artur L. Chardulo, Rogério A. Curi. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 2015


Different DMRT3 Genotypes Are Best Adapted for Harness Racing and Riding in Finnhorses

Jäderkvist Fegraeus K, Johansson L, Mäenpää M, Mykkänen A, Andersson LS, Velie BD, Andersson L, Árnason T, Lindgren G. J Hered. 2015


The DMRT3 gene mutation in Chinese horse breeds

Han H, Zeng L, Dang R, Lan X, Chen H, Lei C. Anim Genet. 2015


The importance of the DMRT3 ‘Gait keeper’ mutation on riding traits and gaits in Standardbred and Icelandic horses

Kim Jäderkvist, Niina Holm, Freyja Imsland, Thorvaldur Árnason, Leif Andersson, Lisa S. Andersson, Gabriella Lindgren (2015). Livestock Science.


DMRT3 is associated with gait type in Mangalarga Marchador horses, but does not control gait ability

L. Patterson, E. A. Staiger and S. A. Brooks. Animal Genetics, 2015


Is heterozygotie at the “Gait Keeper” Gene an Advantage for the Trotteur Français?

A. Ricard (2014). Proceedings, 10th World Congress of Genetics Applied to Livestock Production.


The DMRT3 ´Gait keeper´ mutation affects performance of Nordic and Standardbred trotters

Jäderkvist K, Andersson LS, Johansson AM, Arnason T, Mikko S, Eriksson S, Andersson L, Lindgren G. (2014)  J Anim Sci. 2014 Aug 1.


Gaitedness is associated with the DMRT3 ‘Gait keeper’ mutation in Morgan and American Curly horses

Jäderkvist, K., Kangas, N., Andersson, L. S. and Lindgren, G. (2014). Animal Genetics.


The effect of the 'Gait keeper' mutation in the DMRT3 gene on gaiting ability in Icelandic horses

Kristjansson T, Bjornsdottir S, Sigurdsson A, Andersson LS, Lindgren G, Helyar SJ, Klonowski AM, Arnason (2014). T. J Anim Breed Genet.


Worldwide frequency distribution of the ‘Gait keeper’ mutation in the DMRT3 gene

Promerová, M., Andersson, L. S., Juras, R., Penedo, M. C. T., Reissmann, M., Tozaki, T., Bellone, R., Dunner, S., Hořín, P., Imsland, F., Imsland, P., Mikko, S., Modrý, D., Roed, K. H., Schwochow, D., Vega-Pla, J. L., Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H., Yousefi-Mashouf, N., G. Cothran, E., Lindgren, G. and Andersson, L. (2014),  Animal Genetics.


Mutations in DMRT3 affect locomotion in horses and spinal circuit function in mice

Lisa S. Andersson, Martin Larhammar, Fatima Memic, Hanna Wootz, Doreen Schwochow, Carl-Johan Rubin, Kalicharan Patra, Thorvaldur Arnason, Lisbeth Wellbring, Göran Hjälm, Freyja Imsland, Jessica L. Petersen, Molly E. McCue, James R. Mickelson, Gus Cothran, Nadav Ahituv, Lars Roepstorff, Sofia Mikko, Anna Vallstedt, Gabriella Lindgren, Leif Andersson, Klas Kullander. Nature 2012 488, 642–646.



Unfortunately, some of the journals do not provide open access to their articles, but a summary (abstract) is almost always available.